Nelson Mandela Lived to Tear Down Walls

I will always remember the personal lessons from Nelson Mandela’s life. 11 February 1990: It was the day when I was born into the world. On the other side of the globe, Nelson Mandela was freed after decades in prison. Whereas the Berlin wall was torn down months before, for many his freedom meant the end of apartheid in South Africa. Apartheid, meaning “separateness” in one of their local languages, was a situation wherein people were judged and policed according to their physical appearance (color, skin, etc.).

Apartheid was geographical. Apartheid policies back then meant that there were different and separate schools, bathrooms, and other spaces for whites, blacks, indians, red-haireds, etc. The spatial separation meant selective employment, income inequalities, abuse, and discrimination. Having a different skin color meant lesser housing, low-paying jobs, and physical violence.

Nelson Mandela fought to tear down the wall and end the separateness.


Yet in both our minds and geographies, the walls still stand and persist today. Rich and poor; ugly and beautiful; formal and informal settler; citizen and indigenous; saved and unbeliever; and, interestingly, UP and others. More often than not, we take these dualisms as normal and do both soft and extreme measures to enforce and reproduce the idea. These are the apartheids of today.

What are the walls we should question and, possibly, demolish today?


photo credit to:

Nagging Questions on Disasters in the Philippines

Good day to you. Typhoon Yolanda just struck the Philippines. In response, over the past few days I have been asking the following:

1. What will happen if a 7.x magnitude earthquake struck Metro Manila and a typhoon soon follows after?

2. Are we prepared for such eventuality?

3. What are the steps towards the planning and general preparations for such events?

4. How do we make more people understand the disaster risk formula [risk = (hazard x exposure x vulnerability)adaptive capacity]?

5. Upon understanding the disaster risk formula, how do we translate our solutions into the physical landscape and human systems?


GEODIVERSITY. This term is quite a good word today to describe diversity in the earth sciences, particularly geomorphology.

Genealogy of Geodiversity

To understand geodiversity, let us look at its genealogy - the history of the idea. How did the term come into existence? In my opinion, it started with “biodiversity”. In the field of biology and its applications in managing the “natural” environment, the similar term in use is “biodiversity.” It simply means the level of variation in the species in a specified area. The number of various species in a forest is “forest biodiversity”; in a coastal area, “coastal biodiversity”; in an urban system, “urban biodiversity.”

Biodiversity thereafter became a bigger (and more vague) word. The term biodiversity was then used to mean larger things like the “beauty of nature,” the fragility of ecosystems, and something for communities to cash in. Just think of that scene in the Lion King movie: all sorts of circus animals singing “The Circle of Life.”


Rafiki raises Simba. Nants Ingonyama bagithi Baba! Biodiversity!

Biodiversity then became the seed for the idea of geodiversity. We need a term for describing those moments when we are in awe of landscapes and seascapes. A case in point: Calaguas Islands, which are located off the coast of Camarines Norte, Philippines.


This is not your ordinary group of Pacific islands.


It is famous for its long white beaches, the one to the right is called “Mahabang Buhangin,” which literally translates into “Long Beach” and is claimed to be longer than Boracay’s longest white beach. Rolling hills are similar those in the Batanes Islands, Philippines.


It houses small but precious communities. Look at the delta at the center of the image. Even the delta is white!


This lake in one of the big islands connotes good groundwater supply.


Unspoiled, turquoise, and white beaches! Pockets of woodlands!


Look at these white depositional formations. Imagine yourself running around these shifting sands of white awesome

To understand what I mean in this case, please read the sketchy formula below:

Islands + islets + streams + delta + woodland pockets + lake + mangrove areas + large and long white beaches +  = geodiversity

The field is open for those who want into delve in these aspects of earth sciences. Maybe, the term could be used as an entry point into something beautiful. 

The Philippines is one big place for the application of the concept, as seen in the recent “It’s More Fun in the Philippines” campaign by the Department of Tourism. Also, I place my bet that any country with high biodiversity, such as the Philippines, tends to have higher levels of geodiversity. 

But how will the idea actually function in everyday life?

Crafting the Geodiversity Bandwagon

Eventually, the idea of “geodiversity” will connote beauty and will be used to commodify geomorphic systems. “Geodiverse” landscapes may be proclaimed by the state through the government. Then, the Department of Tourism might catch the idea and use it for a campaign. I bet there shall be a Media Forum on Philippine Geodiversity, which will then evolved into a Philippine National Conference on Geodiversity. The National Action Plan for Philippine Geodiversity will then follow. Local Government Units will follow suit and use the term to have local projects on geodiversity tourism and geodiversity conservation. It may take some time, but the term will find its way into land use and development plans.

On the side, there shall be photo contests on Philippine geodiversity; a national geodiversity youth conference; a facebook group; and celebrity endorsement. Maybe, a geodiversity club/network will be started.

If we’re lucky, then we will have a Republic Act on Geodiversity.

Finally, a Geodiversity bandwagon. Just one good idea and it becomes reality. It will work like “Inception.”

That sequence is what happened to other ideas such as “disaster risk reduction”, “climate change adaptation”, “green urbanism”, and “biodiversity”. Will the use of the idea help in creating spaces where poverty is less possible?

I wonder, what if we start planting the idea of “geodiversity” into the mainstream thought process in the Philippines?


Circle of Life Scene

Calaguas Islands screenshots are from Google Earth

The spatial distribution of roads indicate the level of development and is a function of topography and population. Through the map, we can have clues on where people actually are across the Philippine archipelago.